Laurent Lamalice, Fabrice Le Boeuf, Jacques Huot
Circulation Research. 2007;100:782-794 doi: 10.1161/01.RES.0000259593.07661.1e
Endothelial cell migration is essential to angiogenesis. This motile process is directionally regulated by chemotactic, haptotactic, and mechanotactic stimuli and further involves degradation of the extracellular matrix to enable progression of the migrating cells. It requires the activation of several signaling pathways that converge on cytoskeletal remodeling. Then, it follows a series of events in which the endothelial cells extend, contract, and throw their rear toward the front and progress forward. The aim of this review is to give an integrative view of the signaling mechanisms that govern endothelial cell migration in the context of angiogenesis.
Figure 3. Major steps of endothelial cell migration. A, Endothelial cell migration can be divided in 6 sequential events: (i) Cdc42 dependent sensing of the motile stimuli by filopodia; (ii) cellular extension involving the Rac1-dependent formation of protruding lamellipodia; (iii) attachment of the protrusions to the extracellular matrix at focal adhesions; (iv) stress fiber–mediated contraction of the cell body allowing forward progression; (v) rear release by stress fiber–mediated traction forces; and (vi) recycling of the adhesive and signaling components. The major signaling events associated with each of these 6 steps are indicated in B.