Archives de la catégorie neuroscience

Rats! & NDE: SQUEAK

D8133A5D-40AA-4536-9B15-29FCFF1514BC.jpgNDE have been used as proof of the existence of souls in a large set of stupid arguments.
Following this trend, it seems that prophet Sir Terry Pratchett revealed that rats have souls, managed by the DEATH of Rats of course, in his novels.
Now scientific evidence come to support either:

  • the existence of rats’ souls, or
  • the non-supernatural, quite materialistic, explanation of NDE.

Jimo Borjigin, UnCheol Lee, Tiecheng Liu, Dinesh Pal, Sean Huff, Daniel Klarr, Jennifer Sloboda, Jason Hernandez, Michael M. Wang, and George A. Mashour
Surge of neurophysiological coherence and connectivity in the dying brain

PNAS 2013 ; published ahead of print August 12, 2013, doi:10.1073/pnas.1308285110

The brain is assumed to be hypoactive during cardiac arrest. However, the neurophysiological state of the brain immediately following cardiac arrest has not been systematically investigated. In this study, we performed continuous electroencephalography in rats undergoing experimental cardiac arrest and analyzed changes in power density, coherence, directed connectivity, and cross-frequency coupling. We identified a transient surge of synchronous gamma oscillations that occurred within the first 30 s after cardiac arrest and preceded isoelectric electroencephalogram. Gamma oscillations during cardiac arrest were global and highly coherent; moreover, this frequency band exhibited a striking increase in anterior–posterior-directed connectivity and tight phase-coupling to both theta and alpha waves. High-frequency neurophysiological activity in the near-death state exceeded levels found during the conscious waking state. These data demonstrate that the mammalian brain can, albeit paradoxically, generate neural correlates of heightened conscious processing at near-death.

Illustration by ~Smaggers

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Neural Decoding of Visual Imagery During Sleep

Neural Decoding of Visual Imagery During Sleep

T. Horikawa, M. Tamaki, Y. Miyawaki, Y. Kamitani

Science 3 May 2013: Vol. 340 no. 6132 pp. 639-642 doi: 10.1126/science.1234330

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What Is Stochastic Resonance? Definitions, Misconceptions, Debates, and Its Relevance to Biology

What Is Stochastic Resonance? Definitions, Misconceptions, Debates, and Its Relevance to Biology

McDonnell MD, Abbott D (2009)

PLoS Comput Biol 5(5): e1000348. doi:10.1371/journal.pcbi.1000348

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Neurotechnologies : Vers un Homme augmenté ?

Conférence_Neurotechnologies.jpg

L’association étudiante du Master professionnel « Médiations des sciences » de l’université Bordeaux 3 organise un cycle de conférences sur les neurosciences.

La première conférence « Neurotechnologies : Vers un Homme augmenté ?  » aura lieu le mardi 22 janvier à 18h30 à la Maison écocitoyenne.

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The Connectome of a Decision-Making Neural Network

The Connectome of a Decision-Making Neural Network

Travis A. Jarrell, Yi Wang, Adam E. Bloniarz, Christopher A. Brittin, Meng Xu, J. Nichol Thomson, Donna G. Albertson, David H. Hall, and Scott W. Emmons

Science 27 July 2012: Vol. 337 no. 6093 pp. 437-444 doi: 10.1126/science.1221762

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Religious Factors and Hippocampal Atrophy in Late Life

Religious Factors and Hippocampal Atrophy in Late Life

Owen AD, Hayward RD, Koenig HG, Steffens DC, Payne ME

PLoS ONE 6(3): e17006. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0017006

Not sure if the John Templeton Foundation guys are happy with the outcome of this study…

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Monkeys & Zen-like trance

What would the Buddha have said? Monkeys have been trained to put themselves into a Zen-like trance – but out of desire for marshmallows rather than [Source]

I’ll have to read the paper :

Neurofeedback training on sensorimotor rhythmin marmoset monkeys

Philippens, Ingrid H.C.H.M.; Vanwersch, Raymond A.P.

31 March 2010 – Volume 21 – Issue 5 – pp 328-332 doi: 10.1097/WNR.0b013e3283360ba8

Neurofeedback research in a model closely related to humans is recommended to rule out placebo effects and unspecific factors bridging the gap between nonvalidated empirical and standardized controlled research. In this article, telemetric sensorimotor rhythm (SMR; 11–14 Hz) feedback training in the marmoset monkey is applied to examine the monkey’s capability to voluntary control their brain activity. Four monkeys, provided with two epidural bioelectric electrodes above the sensorimotor cortex, were trained with positive reinforcement on SMR measured by online analyses of 1.28 s electroencephalogram epochs in 30-min sessions. These monkeys learned within five sessions to increase their α activity. The first evidence of nonhuman primates having an operant control over the SMR is provided, an initial step for a much-needed scientific basis to neurofeedback.

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Genetic risk and a primary role for cell-mediated immune mechanisms in multiple sclerosis

Genetic risk and a primary role for cell-mediated immune mechanisms in multiple sclerosis

The International Multiple Sclerosis Genetics Consortium & The Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium

Nature 476, 214–219 (11 August 2011) doi:10.1038/nature10251

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Oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) is related to psychological resources

Oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) is related to psychological resources

Shimon Saphire-Bernstein, Baldwin M. Way, Heejung S. Kim, David K. Sherman, and Shelley E. Taylor

PNAS September 13, 2011 vol. 108 no. 37 15118-15122 doi: 10.1073/pnas.1113137108

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There is nothing paranormal about near-death experiences

There is nothing paranormal about near-death experiences : how neuroscience can explain seeing bright lights, meeting the dead, or being convinced you are one of them

Dean Mobbs, Caroline Watt

Trends in Cognitive Sciences, In Press, Corrected Proof, doi:10.1016/j.tics.2011.07.010


Short and sweet!

6A474657-C711-447A-B57E-9FA979CA3B33.jpg

Figure 1.
Large scale studies showing the number of people who report near-death experiences (NDEs). The far left bars show that a large proportion (82%) of near-death survivors do not report near-death experiences [2]. The central bars represent a retrospective, or historic, study [15]. Crucially, the far right bars show that around half of the people who reported near-death experiences in this study were not in danger of dying [3].
underlined by me, refs in the paper 😀

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