Genome-wide association studies in multiple sclerosis: lessons and future prospects
Anu Kemppinen, Stephen Sawcer, Alastair Compston
Briefings in Functional Genomics (2011) First published online: February 10, 2011 doi: 10.1093/bfgp/elr004
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory neurodegenerative disease with complex aetiology. A haplotype within the major histocompatibility region is the major risk factor for MS, but despite clear evidence for a genetic component additional risk variants were not identified until the recent advent of genome-wide association studies (GWAS). At present, 10 GWAS have been conducted in MS, and together with follow-up studies these have confirmed 16 loci with genome-wide significance. Many of these common risk variants are located at or near genes with central immunological functions and the majority are associated with other autoimmune diseases. However, evidence from pathway analyses on more modestly associated variants also supports the involvement of neurological genes. Although the mechanisms by which the associated variants exert their effects are still poorly understood, some have been shown to correlate with expression of nearby genes. Further studies are required to define the functionally relevant variants in the identified regions and to investigate their effects at the molecular and cellular level. Finally, many genetic risk variants for MS remain to be identified. In order to expose some of the loci with more modest effects, a GWAS in nearly 10 000 MS patients has recently been completed.