Entre la technique originale de production des iPS par Yamanaka et ce jour, il y a eu des progrès quant aux techniques utilisées, notamment pour éviter la modification permanente du génome qui est source de complications – majeures les complications.
Au moins deux grandes tendances ont déjà été publiées, utilisant :
Groundbreaking work demonstrated that ectopic expression of four transcription factors, Oct4, Klf4, Sox2, and c-Myc, could reprogram murine somatic cells to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) (Takahashi and Yamanaka, 2006), and human iPSCs were subsequently generated using similar genetic manipulation (Takahashi et al., 2007; Yu et al., 2007). To address the safety issues arose from harboring integrated exogenous sequences in the target cell genome, a number of modified genetic methods have been developed and produced iPSCs with potentially reduced risks (for discussion, see Yamanaka, 2009, and references therein). However, all of the methods developed to date still involve the use of genetic materials and thus the potential for unexpected genetic modiﬁcations by the exogenous sequences in the target cells. Here we report generation of protein-induced pluripotent stem cells (piPSCs) from murine embryonic fibroblasts using recombinant cell-penetrating reprogramming proteins. We demonstrated that such piPSCs can long-term self-renew and are pluripotent in vitro and in vivo
Clinical application of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) is limited by the low efficiency of iPSC derivation and the fact that most protocols modify the genome to effect cellular reprogramming. Moreover, safe and effective means of directing the fate of patient-specific iPSCs toward clinically useful cell types are lacking. Here we describe a simple, non integrating strategy for reprogramming cell fate based on administration of synthetic mRNA modified to overcome innate antiviral responses. We show that this approach can reprogram multiple human cell types to pluripotency with efficiencies that greatly surpass established protocols. We further show that the same technology can be used to efficiently direct the differentiation of RNA-induced pluripotent stem cells (RiPSCs) into terminally differentiated myogenic cells. This technology represents a safe, efficient strategy for somatic cell reprogramming and directing cell fate that has broad applicability for basic research, disease modeling, and regenerative medicine.
Tom Roud n’aura pas à attendre longtemps pour voir sa prédiction réalisée😉 Emmett Brown est passé par là…