Gene Expression Profiles Characterize Inflammation Stages in the Acute Lung Injury in Mice
Isabelle Lesur, Julien Textoris, Béatrice Loriod, Cécile Courbon, Stéphane Garcia, Marc Leone, Catherine Nguyen
PLoS ONE 5(7): e11485. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0011485
Acute Lung Injury (ALI) carries about 50 percent mortality and is frequently associated with an infection (sepsis). Life-support treatment with mechanical ventilation rescues many patients, although superimposed infection or multiple organ failure can result in death. The outcome of a patient developing sepsis depends on two factors: the infection and the pre-existing inflammation. In this study, we described each stage of the inflammation process using a transcriptional approach and an animal model. Female C57BL6/J mice received an intravenous oleic acid injection to induce an acute lung injury (ALI). Lung expression patterns were analyzed using a 9900 cDNA mouse microarray (MUSV29K). Our gene-expression analysis revealed marked changes in the immune and inflammatory response metabolic pathways, notably lipid metabolism and transcription. The early stage (1 hour–1.5 hours) is characterized by a pro-inflammatory immune response. Later (3 hours–4 hours), the immune cells migrate into inflamed tissues through interaction with vascular endothelial cells. Finally, at late stages of lung inflammation (18 hours–24 hours), metabolism is deeply disturbed. Highly expressed pro-inflammatory cytokines activate transcription of many genes and lipid metabolism. In this study, we described a global overview of critical events occurring during lung inflammation which is essential to understand infectious pathologies such as sepsis where inflammation and infection are intertwined. Based on these data, it becomes possible to isolate the impact of a pathogen at the transcriptional level from the global gene expression modifications resulting from the infection associated with the inflammation.