Archives de novembre 2007

Picks

The Longevity Pill?

Drugs much more powerful than the resveratrol found in red wine will be tested to treat diabetes.
Well, red wine will be for the moment.


Science and Engineering Visualization Challenge


Dogs Can Classify Complex Photos In Categories Like Humans Do


Scientists, Teachers and Firefighters ‘Most Prestigious’ Jobs
Glad to know that I have a prestigious job, could I have the prestigious income now? What? you think this isn’t the case in France? Look at that! [pdf, fr] Most people trust scientists in France. So, what about that income increase Mr Sarkozy President?


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Steve Fever

Steve Fever

Countless tiny machines hijack the living, borrowing their hands, eyes, and ears, as the machines strive to resurrect just one man.

By Greg Egan

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Free! BioScapes 2007 Competition Poster

And the winner is a Brainbow image!

Dr. Jean Livet
Dr. Jeff Lichtman Laboratory
Harvard University
Cambridge, MA, USA
Specimen: “Brainbow” Mouse Brain Stem
Technique: Confocal

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PLoS ONE Picks

Lévesque M, Gatien S, Finnson K, Desmeules S, Villiard É, et al. (2007) Transforming Growth Factor: β Signaling Is Essential for Limb Regeneration in Axolotls. PLoS ONE 2(11): e1227. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0001227

Fox Keller E, Harel D (2007) Beyond the Gene. PLoS ONE 2(11): e1231. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0001231

Weng W, Sukowati EW, Sheng G (2007) On Hemangioblasts in Chicken. PLoS ONE 2(11): e1228. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0001228

Koo B, Yoon M, Yoon K, Im S, Kim Y, et al. (2007) An Obligatory Role of Mind Bomb-1 in Notch Signaling of Mammalian Development. PLoS ONE 2(11): e1221. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0001221

Tsukamoto-Yasui M, Sasaki T, Matsumoto W, Hasegawa A, Toyoda T, et al. (2007) Active Hippocampal Networks Undergo Spontaneous Synaptic Modification. PLoS ONE 2(11): e1250. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0001250

Vandewalle G, Schmidt C, Albouy G, Sterpenich V, Darsaud A, et al. (2007) Brain Responses to Violet, Blue, and Green Monochromatic Light Exposures in Humans: Prominent Role of Blue Light and the Brainstem. PLoS ONE 2(11): e1247. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0001247

Havlioglu N, Wang J, Fushimi K, Vibranovski MD, Kan Z, et al. (2007) An Intronic Signal for Alternative Splicing in the Human Genome. PLoS ONE 2(11): e1246. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0001246

Tempel-Brami C, Pinkas I, Scherz A, Salomon Y (2007) Detection of Light Images by Simple Tissues as Visualized by Photosensitized Magnetic Resonance Imaging. PLoS ONE 2(11): e1191. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0001191

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Therapeutic angiogenesis of mouse hind limb ischemia by novel peptide activating GRP78 receptor on endothelial cells

Therapeutic angiogenesis of mouse hind limb ischemia by novel peptide activating GRP78 receptor on endothelial cells

Britta Hardy, Alexander Battler, Chana Weiss, Orly Kudasi, Annat Raiter

Biochem Pharmacol (2007), doi:10.1016/j.bcp.2007.10.008

Therapeutic angiogenesis emerged as a non-invasive mean of promoting neovascularization in ischemic tissues. We have searched for new molecules that induce angiogenesis by screening a phage display combinatory peptide library on endothelial cells. One of the selected peptides identified by binding to endothelial cells under hypoxic conditions was further studied. The aim of this study was to assess the therapeutic value of this peptide, RoY, in a mouse hind limb ischemia model and to identify it’s receptor on endothelial cells. RoY, a 12 amino-acid synthetic peptide, induced in vitro angiogeneic activity under hypoxic conditions by increasing endothelial cell proliferation, migration and tube formation. In order to assess its therapeutic properties in ischemic tissues, a hind limb ischemia model was induced in C57BL mice by a femoral artery excision. A single local intramuscular injection of RoY peptide to the operated limb, significantly restored blood perfusion and alleviated hind limb ischemia as determined by a laser Doppler imager. Increased capillary density in histological sections corroborated these findings. Protein precipitation and mass spectroscopy studies identified GRP78, a heat shock protein, as the peptide-binding membrane receptor that was increased on endothelial cell membranes under hypoxic conditions. This study demonstrates the efficacy of RoY peptide in alleviation of hind limb ischemia. In addition, it provides evidence that GRP78 is an angiogenic receptor on hypoxic endothelial cells.

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Haemodynamics determined by a genetic programme

Haemodynamics determined by a genetic programme govern asymmetric development of the aortic arch

Kenta Yashiro, Hidetaka Shiratori & Hiroshi Hamada

Nature Vol 450 | 8 November 2007 | doi:10.1038/nature06254

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A Network Analysis of the Human T-Cell Activation Gene Network Identifies Jagged1 as a Therapeutic Target for Autoimmune Diseases

Palacios R, Goni J, Martinez-Forero I, Iranzo J, Sepulcre J (2007) A Network Analysis of the Human T-Cell Activation Gene Network Identifies Jagged1 as a Therapeutic Target for Autoimmune Diseases.

PLoS ONE 2(11): e1222. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0001222

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Induction of Pluripotent Stem Cells from Adult Human Fibroblasts by Defined Factors

Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Lines Derived from Human Somatic Cells

Junying Yu, Maxim A. Vodyanik, Kim Smuga-Otto, Jessica Antosiewicz-Bourget, Jennifer L. Frane, Shulan Tian, Jeff Nie, Gudrun A. Jonsdottir, Victor Ruotti, Ron Stewart, Igor I. Slukvin, James A. Thomson

http://www.sciencexpress.org 20 November 2007 Page 1 / doi: 10.1126/science.1151526

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Notch Regulates Wound Healing

Chigurupati S, Arumugam TV, Son TG, Lathia JD, Jameel S, et al (2007) Involvement of Notch Signaling in Wound Healing. PLoS ONE 2(11): e1167. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0001167

The Notch signaling pathway is critically involved in cell fate decisions during development of many tissues and organs. In the present study we employed in vivo and cell culture models to elucidate the role of Notch signaling in wound healing. The healing of full-thickness dermal wounds was significantly delayed in Notch antisense transgenic mice and in normal mice treated with c-secretase inhibitors that block proteolytic cleavage and activation of Notch. In contrast, mice treated with a Notch ligand Jagged peptide showed significantly enhanced wound healing compared to controls. Activation or inhibition of Notch signaling altered the behaviors of cultured vascular endothelial cells, keratinocytes and fibroblasts in a scratch wound healing model in ways consistent with roles for Notch signaling in wound healing functions all three cell types. These results suggest that Notch signaling plays important roles in wound healing and tissue repair, and that targeting the Notch pathway might provide a novel strategy for treatment of wounds and for modulation of angiogenesis in other pathological conditions.

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Induction of Pluripotent Stem Cells from Adult Human Fibroblasts

Induction of Pluripotent Stem Cells from Adult Human Fibroblasts by Defined Factors

Kazutoshi Takahashi, Koji Tanabe, Mari Ohnuki, Megumi Narita, Tomoko Ichisaka, Kiichiro Tomoda, and Shinya Yamanaka

Successful reprogramming of differentiated human somatic cells into a pluripotent state would allow creation of patient- and disease-specific stem cells. We previously reported generation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, capable of germline transmission, from mouse somatic cells by transduction of four defined transcription factors. Here, we demonstrate the generation of iPS cells from adult human dermal fibroblasts with the same four factors: Oct3/4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc. Human iPS cells were similar to human embryonic stem (ES) cells in morphology, proliferation, surface antigens, gene expression, epigenetic status of pluripotent cell-specific genes, and telomerase activity. Furthermore, these cells could differentiate into cell types of the three germ layers in vitro and in teratomas. These findings demonstrate that iPS cells can be generated from adult human fibroblasts.

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